【博士教育网】 发布时间:2014-5-23

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Simulated Test 1

  Part One: Structure Written Expression

  Directions: In each question decide which of the four choices given will most suitably complete the sentence if inserted at the place(s) marked。 Put the letter of your choice in the ANSWER SHEET。 (25%)

1。 After the lean musical years in the 1630s, there had been a in Monteverdi’s operatic career: a new production of L’Arianna was staged in 1640, and three new operas appeared within two years。

A。 reverence B。 resurgence C。 recrudescence D。 regress

2。 The high-rise garbage repository is a for both accomplishment and failure。

A。 exaggeration B。 allusion C。 euphemism D。 metaphor

3。 Their mother had died when they were little more than infants and it was from that moment the Paul’s misanthropy had 。

A。 set back B。 set aside C。 set about D。 set in

4。 The loud noise of the alarm clock her sweet dream

A。 broke down B。 broke upon C。 broke in on D。 broke through

5。 The bishop didn’t specify in detail what he wanted to know, but I imagine he fears that Father Marr was killed because of something in his unknown past, which may not be entirely to the church。

A。 credible B。 credulous C。 credential D。 creditable

6。 The room is about in diameter as the hall。

A。 one-third as large B。 as one-third large C。 as large one-third D。 one-third large as

7。 The village was two or three groups of simple houses, a church, a post-office and a small general store。

A。 composed of B。 constructed by C。 consisted of D。 built with

8。 The supervisor didn’t have time so far to go into it , but he gave us an idea about his plan。

A。 at hand B。 in turn C。 in conclusion D。 at length

9。 Eric clearly his father, a barbarian in every way

A。 took after B。 asked after C。 got after D。 come after

10。 The wealth of a country should be measured the health and happiness of its people as well as the material goods it can produce。

A。 in line with B。 in terms of C。 in regard with D。 by means of

11。 Last week I Thompson at the conference。 He told me not to her tricks。

A。 fell to… fall through B。 fell on … fall to C。 fell out … fall on D。 fell in with… fall for

12。 by diabetes, Bach died on July 28, 1750。

A。 besieged B。 besought C。 beclouded D。 becrippled

13。 The high-rise garbage repository is a for both accomplishment and failure。

A。 exaggeration B。 allusion C。 euphemism D。 metaphor

14。 The second book was by August 1952, but two years later, the end was still nowhere in sight。

A。 completed B。 to have completed C。 to complete D。 to have been completed

15。 The world’s greatest sporting event, the Olympic Games, upholds the amateur ideal that matters is not winning but participating。

A。 anything B。 it C。 what D。 everything

16。 , the Olympic Games, upholds the amateur ideal that what matters is not winning but participating。

A。 Having been the world’s greatest sporting event

B。 Which is the world’s greatest sporting event

C。 What world’s the greatest sporting event

D。 The world’s greatest sporting event

17。 We expect you to act of our country in the talks concerning her entry into the WTO。

A。 in the best interests B。 upon the utmost benefit

C。 for the best love D。 to the utmost welfare

18。 You live for ten days without food; without water you die in less than a week。

A。 may… might B。 would…should C。 might…would D。 should…might

19。 I don’t think of them is in the classroom。

A。 all B。 both C。 either D。 neither

20。 , the tomatoes taste delicious。

A。 They are ripe B。 they ripe C。 when ripe D。 when are ripe

21。 A senior Bush administration official also indicated yesterday that early resumption of the six-party talks, hosted by China, on North Korea in January may not be possible because Washington and Beijing have not yet reached an of views。

A。 contract B。 identity C。 coordination D。 alliance

22。 The secretary was left about this plan。

A。 in the dark B。 in the sea C。 in the doghouse D。 in the clouds

23。 Physics, about which I know nothing, doesn’t seem 。

A。 such a dull subject B。 so dull a subject C。 such dull a subject D。 so a dull subject

24。 You can’t be when you cross the street。

A。 so careful B。 such C。 much D。 too careful

25。 The strong storm did a lot of damage to the coastal villages: several fishing boats were and many houses collapsed。

A。 wrecked B。 spoiled C。 torn D。 injured

Part Two: Reading Comprehension

Ⅰ。 Each of the passages below is followed by some questions。 For each question four answers are given。 Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each question。 Put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET。 (10%)

Passage One

(1) John Kerry has definitively lost the popular vote by some three and a half million votes。 That makes an all-out lawyers’ war in Ohio devoid of moral force (and I doubt that in the end there’ll be one)。

(2) Kerry ran a tactical campaign, devoid of vision or explicable alternatives, utterly lacking in message discipline, and riddled with misjudgments -- it was one of the most incompetently run presidential campaigns by a Democrat in my lifetime。

(3) Kerry’s biggest blunder was his failure to focus like a laser on the economy in the final weeks of the campaign, despite polls showing it was the number one issue on voters’ minds。 The lethal character of Kerry’s scatter-shot, flailing, themeless campaign close can be clearly seen in the Ohio exit polls。 In the Buckeye State, 62% of the voters said the economy was "not good" -- BUT asked who they’d trust with the economy, they were evenly split between Bush and Kerry, 48-48%。 The national number on that question actually favored Bush, who got 48% on the economy to Kerry’s 46%。

(4) By not focusing on the economy, even in a state that had lost 250,000 jobs on Bush’s watch Kerry couldn’t make the case that he’d do better。 Whatever economic message his campaign had was blown out of the water by Kerry’s final-week harangues on the Iraqi explosives issue (about which there was too much reportorial dispute in the media to provide him a clean shot at Bush)。

26。 The last word “one” in the first paragraph refers to 。

A。 a moral force B。 a lawyer C。 a war D。 Ohio

27。 Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE according to the passage?

A。 Kerry ran the campaign very incompetently。

B。 Bush has won the popular vote by about 3。5 million votes。

C。 Kerry’s most serious failure was his focus on the Iraqi explosives issue。

D。 In Ohio State, Kerry tied Bush in winning people’s trust in economic issue。

28。 According to the passage, Kerry fell short in the campaign because

A。 he didn’t win the campaign in Ohio State。

B。 he had a lethal character。

C。 his final speech was very lengthy。

D。 his campaign lacked focus。

29。 In the third paragraph, the phrase “In the Buckeye State” means 。

A。 in the United States B。 in the state of being blind

C。 in Ohio D。 in the state where the people are greedy

30。 In the fourth paragraph, “blown out of the water” means “ ”。

A。 shattered B。 exaggerated C。 surprised D。 was reversed

Passage Two

(1) Perhaps all criminals should be required to carry cards which read: Fragile: Handle with Care。 It will never do, theses days, to go around referring to criminals as violent thugs。 You must refer to them politely as “social misfits”。 The professional killer who wouldn’t think twice about using his club or knife to batter some harmless old lady to death in order to rob her of her meager life-savings must never be given a dose of his own medicine。 He is in need of “hospital treatment”。 According to his misguided defenders, society is to blame。 A wicked society breeds evil – or so the argument goes。 When you listen to this kind of talk, it makes you wonder why aren’t all criminals。 We have done away with the absurdly harsh laws of the nineteenth century and this is only right。 But surely enough is enough。 The most senseless piece of criminal legislation in Britain and a number of other countries has been the suspension of capital punishment。

(2) The violent criminal has become a kind of hero-figure in our time。 He is glorified on the screen; he is pursued by the press and paid vast sums of money for his “memoirs”。 Newspapers which specialise in crime reporting enjoy enormous circulations and the publishers of trashy cops and robbers stories or “murder mysteries” have never had it so good。 When you read about the achievements of the great train robbers, it makes you wonder whether you are reading about some glorious resistance movement。 The hardened criminal is cuddled and cosseted by the sociologists on the one hand and adored as a hero by the masses on the other。 It’s no wonder he is a privileged person who expects and receives VIP treatment wherever he goes。

(3) Capital punishment used to be a major deterrent。 It made the violent robber think twice before pulling the trigger。 It gave the cold-blooded poisoner something to ponder about while he was shaking up or serving his arsenic cocktail。 It prevented unarmed policemen from being killed while pursuing their duty by killers armed with automatic weapons。 Above all, it protected the most vulnerable members of society, young children, from brutal violence。 It is horrifying to think that the criminal can literally get away with murder。 We all know that “life sentence” does not mean what it says。 After ten years or so of good conduct, the most desperate villain is free to return to society where he will live very comfortably, thank you, on the proceeds of his crime, or he will go on committing offences until he is caught again。 People are always willing to hold liberal views at the expense of others。 It’s always fashionable to pose as the defender of the under-dog, so long as you, personally, remain unaffected。 Did the defenders of crime, one wonders, in their desire for fair-play, consult the victims before they suspended capital punishment? Hardly, you see, they couldn’t, because all the victims were dead。

31。 According to the passage, which of the following is the author’s opinion?

A。 All criminals should be required to carry cards which read: Fragile: Handle with Care。

B。 Capital punishment is the only way to deter criminals。

C。 Society is to blame。

D。 All criminals need hospital treatment。

32。 The tone taken by the author towards these defenders of crime in the passage is 。

A。 ironical。 B。 critical。 C。 agitated。 D。 controversial。

33。 “Capital punishment” most probably means 。

A。 life sentence。 B。 severe punishment C。 fine。 D。 sentence of death

34。 The word “deterrent” in the third paragraph refers to 。

A。 something fearsome that can prevent or discourage from acting

B。 an influencing or determining element or factor

C。 a cleansing substance

D。 a catch that locks the movement of one part of a mechanism。

35。 Which of the following is true according to the passage?

A。 There has been a marked trend in society towards the humane treatment of less fortunate members。

B。 Everybody in society thinks it reasonable that all criminals should be punished。

C。 The author sympathizes with all criminals。

D。 Robbers usually think twice before shooting。

Passage Three

(1) In most countries, the law on organ transplantation is poorly defined, as legislation ahs not yet been created to cope with this advance in surgery。 The existing framework relating to physical assault and care of the dead has no provision for organ transplantation。 It is customary to ask the permission of the relatives, but, because organ removal must take place immediately after death, it may be impossible to reach the relatives in time。 It has been suggested that there should be a widespread campaign to encourage persons to provide in their wills that their organs be used for transplantation。 An alternative is to provide by law that permission is assumed unless removal has been forbidden by the individual in his lifetime。 Such laws have been passed in Denmark, France, Sweden, Italy, and Israel。 Compulsory postmortem examination, a far more extensive procedure than organ removal for grafting, is required in most countries after unexpected death, and this compulsion is not a matter of public concern and debate。

(2) There would seem to be no reason why organ removal for transplantation purposes should not also be acceptable to public opinion, provided there is a mechanism by which individuals in their lifetime can refuse this permission。 This, of course, requires an efficient register of those who indicate their refusal: the register would be consulted before any organs would be removed。 It is important that there be public reassurance that consideration of transplantation would not impair normal resuscitative efforts of the potential donor。

(3) Transplantation has obviously raised important ethical considerations concerning the diagnosis of death, and, particularly, how far resuscitation should be continued。 Every effort must be made to restore the heartbeat to someone who has had a sudden cardiac arrest or breathing to someone who cannot breathe。 Artificial respiration and massage of the heart, the standard methods of resuscitation, are continued until it is clear that the brain is dead。 Most physicians consider that beyond this point efforts at resuscitation are useless。

36。 According to the author, which of the following is NOT TRUE?

A。 Most countries do not have an effective law on organ transplantation。

B。 The traditional way of asking for permission of relatives for organ removal does not prove to be always feasible。

C。 It is hard to understand why people should remain silent on compulsory postmortem exam after unexpected death。

D。 In some countries there are laws providing that the permission of organ removal is taken for granted unless it has been refused by the person in his lifetime。

37。 Which of the following is NOT a suggestion made in the passage?

A。 People should be encouraged to donate their organs after death。

B。 Organ removal should be permitted in the course of compulsory postmortem exam。

C。 Organ removal for transplantation should be advocated because it benefits the human society。

D。 Organ removal for transplantation could be considered legal unless the dead person stated otherwise in his life-time。

38。 The word “impair” at the end of the second paragraph can best be replaced by 。

A。 neglect B。 weaken C。 come together with D。 be superior to

39。 It is believed that efforts at resuscitation are useless when 。

A。 artificial respiration and massage of the heart have yielded no obvious result

B。 a person’s heartbeat and breath has totally stopped

C。 standard methods of resuscitation have failed

D。 the brain is certainly dead

40。 Which of the following can best sum up the passage?

A。 Legal and ethical problems of organ transplantation。

B。 Some underlying principles on organ transplantation。

C。 The diagnosis of death before organ transplantation。

D。 The difference between compulsory postmortem exam and organ transplantation。

Ⅱ。 Directions: Read the following passage carefully and then explain in your own English the exact meaning of the numbered and underlined parts。 Put your answers on the ANSWER SHEET。 (15%)

(41) By definition, heroes and heroines are men and women distinguished by uncommon courage, achievements, and self-sacrifice made most often for the benefit of others- they are people against whom we measure others。 They are men and women recognized for shaping our nation’s consciousness and development as well as the lives of those who admire them。 (42) Yet some people say that ours is an age where true heroes and heroines are hard to come by, where the very ideal of heroism is something beyond us-- an artifact of the past。 Some maintain that because the Cold War is over and because America is at peace our age is essentially an unheroic one。 Furthermore, the overall crime rate is down, poverty has been eased by a strong and growing economy, and advances continue to be made in medical science。 (43) Consequently, bereft of cultural heroes, we have latched onto cultural icons – media superstars such as actors, actresses, sports celebrities, television personalities, and people who are simply famous for being famous。

Cultural icons are harder to define but we know them when we see them。 They are people who manage to transcend celebrity, who are legendary, who somehow manage to become mythic。 But what makes some fires icons and others mere celebrities? That’s hard to answer。 In part, their lives have the quality of a story。 For instance, the beautiful young Diana Spencer who at 19 married a prince, bore a king, renounced marriage and the throne, and died at the moment she found true love。 (44) Good looks certainly help。 So does a special indefinable charisma, with the help of the media。 (45) But nothing becomes an icon more than a tragic and early death --- such as Martin Luther King Jr。, John F。 Kennedy, and Princess Diana。

Part Three: Cloze Test

Direction: Fill in each numbered blank in the following passage with ONE suitable word to complete the passage。 Put your answers in the ANSWER SHEET。 (10%)

There are many explanations (46) why UFOs visit the earth。 The most popular one is that they may contain visitors from other planet。 To make such an aircraft, the builders must develop different forms of aviation, (47) they seem to fly much faster than normal aircraft。 The UFOs, it is believed, (48) contain scientist form other planets who are studying life (49) earth。 It is even believed that several such aircraft may have (50) on earth, and some of these space visitors may be living among us。

But there are also less reasonable explanations available。 (51) some sightings of UFOs are difficult to explain, most can be explained quite easily。 In many (52) the observers might have made a mistake。 They might have seen a weather balloon or an aircraft。 Or the light they saw in the sky might have been light from the ground (53) onto the clouds。 (54) , the exact cause of many sightings still remains a (55)